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English Etymology

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构词记忆法[词源学]  

2007-01-16 13:05:12|  分类: 英语词源学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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背单词专题:构词记忆法

word 发表于 2005-12-10 21:01:47

构词理论

构词法是行之有效的传统记词法, 据统计可覆盖80%的英语词汇, 虽然实际有效率要低于此数. 采用这种方法记单词可大大减轻记忆量. :

expel
驱逐

impel
驱动

dispel
驱散
I
构词法的成分分为前缀, 词根和后缀

1.
前缀prediction = pre-dict-ion =预言

2.
词根prediction

3.
后缀prediction



II
构词成分之间经常需补上一个元音字母或一个音节, 使之便于发音, :

centigrade = cent-i-grade = 100
=摄氏

illuminate = il-lu-min-ate = to+light+
补足成分+ v.=照亮



III
构词成分常有省略现象, 如字母x后的s常省略:

exert = ex (s) ert
运用, 施行

后缀也有变体:

table—tabular. (ble=n. bular=adj.)

grain—granular. (grain=n. granular=adj.)

后缀还有共享形式:

articulate=article-ate=
象文章一样=清晰的, 有条理的distinct, clear.

: That man is not very articulate. articulate=article-ate=发音清晰地说, 表现(思想).



V
化学、医学名词常取形容词后缀形式:

desiccant
干燥剂

retardant
抑制剂

additive
添加剂

precipitant
沉淀剂

propellant
推进剂(火药)

repellent
驱虫剂, 防护剂



VI
英语中存在许多可互换的字母,如:

p—b: describe—description

f—v: wife—wives, life—lives

v—w: vin—win (invincible = not-win-ible=
不可战胜) vaste=waste (devastate)


词根

词根是构词法的核心,记住了词根就可以举一反三,快速扩大词汇量,本文只选部分核心词根,都是必知道的:

anim=mind

magnanimous =magn-anim-ous=great-mind-a.=
宽宏大量的

unanimous =uni-anim-ous=one-mind-a.=
一致同意的

pusillanimous =pusill-anim-ous=small-mind-a.=
怯懦的
aqu=water

aquatic =aqu-tic=water-a.=
水生的

aquarium =aqu-rium=water-place=
水族馆,水箱

aqueduct =aqu-duct=water-pipe=
水沟

aquanaut =aqu-naut=water-sailor=
深水操作人员



bio=life

autobiography =auto-bio-graphy=self-life-book=
自传

amphibian =amphi-bio-an=two-life-a.=
两栖的

antibiotic =anti-bio-tic=against-life-a.=
抗生素

symbiosis sym-bio-sis=together-life-n.=
共生

cline=lean
倾斜

decline =de-cline=down-lean=
下降

incline =in-cline=to-lean=
倾向于

recline =re-cline=back-lean=
斜倚



count=


discount dis-count=away-count=
折扣

recount re-count=
又数一遍=详述



cure=care

curator cure-ate-or=care-v.-n.=care-person=
管理者=馆长

err=wander

err =wander away from standard=make mistakes.
: rectify

errand =err-and=wander-n.=
差使, 差事

aberrant =ab-err-ant=from-wander-a.=wander away from norm=
背离常道的.
aberrance=n.
: normal

erroneous =err-on-ous=wander-n.-a.=
错误的

aberration =ab-err-tion=away-go-n.=
离开常规=脱离常规, 精神错乱

erratic =err-tic=go-a.=go away from the norm=
离开常轨的=乖辟的, 古怪的
inconsistent; unpredictable; aimless.
: regular.



gon=


diagonal =dia-gon-al=through-
-a.=对角线

conglomerate =con-glomer-ate=together-group-v.=
聚集.

Congruent =con-gru-ent=together-group-a.=
一致的, 适合的.



here hes=stick

adhere =ad-here=to stick=
坚持, 粘附. adherent=a.

adhesive =ad-hes-ive=to stick-thing=
粘胶剂. adhesion=n.

cohere =co-here=together-stick=
粘着, 结合.

Hesitate =hes-it-ate=stick-go-v.=
犹豫

Inherent =in-here-ent=
在里面的=固有的, 天生的



insul=island



labor=work hard

laboratory =labor-tory=work place=
实验室

belabor =be-labor=v.-work=
作多余的说明

collaborate =col-labor-ate=together-work-v.=
合作.

Elaborate =e-labor-ate=out-work-v.=
精心制作, 阐述. : simplify



leg lect lig=choose
选择

elegant =e-leg-ant=out-choose-a.=
优雅的

eligible =e-lig-ible=out-choose-a.=
合格的

neglect =neg-lect=not-choose=
忽略.

illusion =il-lusion=
幻想

delusion =de-luse-ion=down-play-n.=
错觉

ludicrous =lude-crous=play-a.=
可笑的

prelude =pre-lude=before-play=
序幕



merge merse=“
”(mo), dip, plunge

merge =sink=
吞没, 合并

emerge =e-merge=out-
=没出来=出现

emergency =emerge-ency=
出现-n.=紧急情况, 非常时刻

submerge =sub-merge=
向下没去=置于水中, 沉没

immerse =im-merse=in-sink=
沉浸 淹没.

Mutual =mut-ual=change-a.=
相互的

Commute =com-mute=to move=
跑通勤 trip between home and work



mac magn maj max=large

magnify =magn-ify=
放大, 夸大

magnificent =magn-fic-ent=large-thing-a.=
宏大的, 壮观的

magnitude =magn-tude=large-n.=
广大, 大小, 数量

magnanimous =magn-anim-ous=large-mind-a.=
胸怀宽阔的

magnate =mag-nate=
大者=大腕.

Majestic =maj-es-tic=large-a.=
威严的

Maximum =max-im-um=large-a.=
最大

mini=small

miniature =mini-ture=small-n.=
缩图

minimum =mini-um=small-a.=
最小, 最少

minibus =mini-bus=small bus=
小型公共汽车

diminish =di-mini-ish=down-small-v.=
减少, 缩小

administer =ad-minister=to-
行使部长职权=管理



mo(u)nt min=mountain heap ride

dismount =dis-mount=
反动作-跨上=下来, 取下

eminent =e-min-ent=out-heap-a.=
杰出的, 闻名的

prominent =pro-min-ent=forward-heap-a.=
突出的, 著名的

par pare para=pair
谐音

parallel =para-lel=pair-height=
相似的, 平行的

compare =com-pair=together-pair=
比较.

impair =im-pair=not-pair=
损害

parasite =para-site=pair-sit=
寄生虫

paraphrase =para-phrase=pair-sentence=(
用自己的话)解释

hydrophobia =hydro-phobe-ia=water-fear-disease=
恐水症,狂犬病

claustrophobia =clauster-phobe-ia=close-fear-disease=
幽闲恐惧症

xenophobia =xeno-phobe-ia=foreign-fear-disease=
仇外,生人恐惧症



pot=power

potent =pot-ent=power-a.=
有力的, 有效的.

Impotent =im-potent=no-power=
无能的, 阳萎的

potential =potent-ial=power-a.=
潜能, 潜力

omnipotent =omni-potent=all-power=
全能的



rect reg rig=straight stand

sanctify =sanct-fy=saint-v.=
使神圣, 使成为正当

sanction =sanct-ion=saint-n.=
批准



sal san=
健康

sanitarium =san-rium=health-place=
疗养院

sanitary =san-ary=health-a.=
健康的



sec(u) sequ sue=follow

persecute =per-sec-ute=through-follow-v.=
迫害

consecutive =con-sec-ute-ive=together-follow-v.-a.=
连续不断的

execute =ex-sec-ute=out-follow-v.=
实施, 执行. execution, n.

insect =in-sect=in-cut=
划分至最小单位=昆虫

bisect =bi-sect=two-cut=
分为两份

trisect =tri-sect=three-cut=
分为三份

dissect =dis-sect=apart-cut=cut up=
解剖, 分割



sed sede sess side site=sit

assiduous =as-side-ous=to sit-a.=
坐着学习=刻苦

possess =post-sess=behind-sit=
坐在后面>拥有.

Dissident =dis-side-ent=apart-sit-a.=
持不同政见者

obsess =ob-sess=to-sit=
迷恋.

Preside =pre-side=before-sit=
坐在前面=主持

simulate =simul-ate=same-make=
模拟, 假装

simultaneous =simul-tane-ous=same-time-a.=
同时的

assimilate =as-simil-ate=to-same-make=
同化, 吸收.

Dissemble =dis-semble=not-same=
假装vi. : behave honestly



son=“
”sound

consonant =con-son-ant=together-sound-a.=
和谐的, 一致的

resonant =re-son-ant=back-sound-a.=
回声的

sonometer =sound-meter=
弦音计

unison =uni-son=one-sound=
和诣concord, agreement



test=witness, look


testify =test-fy=witness-make=
作证, 证明

attest =at-test=to-witness=
证明, 表明

detest =de-test=away-look=
憎恶

protest =pro-test=before-look=
抗议, 反对

contest =con-test=together-look=
竞争、争辩



ter=“
”land

territory =ter-tory=land-place=
领土, 版图

terrace =ter-ace=land-n.=
平台, 梯田

terrain =ter-ain=land-n.=
地面, 地形, 领域

torment =tor-ment=twist-n.=
折磨, 苦恼

tornado =torn-ado=twist-thing=
龙卷风

torture =tort-ure=twist-n.=
折磨, 拷打

distort =dis-tort=apart-twist=
, 曲解. distortion=n.

extort =ex-tort=out-twist=
勒索. extortion=n.

retort=re-tort=back-twist=
反驳



via vey voy=way, go (v=w)

via =via=way-n.=
通过

obvious =ob-via-ous=on-way-a.=
明显的

previous =pre-via-ous=before-way-a.=
前面的

 

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